CANOMAD syndrome

What causes CANOMAD syndrome?

The underlying cause of CANOMAD syndrome is poorly understood. It appears as if IgM antibodies play a crucial role in the development of the disorder. It also appears as if the condition is caused in some way by the presence of anti-diasialosyl antibodies in the body. The source of anti- diasialosyl antibodies found in individuals with CANOMAD syndrome is unknown.

Last updated on 05-01-20

Are there any medical terms that I should review prior to reading information about CANOMAD syndrome?

It might be helpful to review the following descriptions before you read information about CANOMAD syndrome since most of the information available on the condition is very technical in nature.

(C)hronic - refers to the long duration of the condition.

(A)taxic - relates to the loss of ability to coordinate muscular movement.

(N)europathy - describes a disease or abnormality of the nervous system, especially one affecting the cranial or spinal nerves.

(O)phthalmoplegia - refers to the paralysis of one or more of the muscles of the eye.

Ig(M) paraprotein - IgM is a protein, more specifically an antibody, that is secreted by plasma cells. Plasma cells are a pale yellow mixture of water, proteins and salts. One of the functions of plasma is to act as a carrier for blood cells, nutrients, enzymes and hormones. In CANOMAD the IgM antibody is abnormally present. The term “paraprotein” actually refers to any abnormal plasma protein associated with a disease.

Cold (A)gglutinins - antibodies that are active at cold temperatures, attaching to red blood cells and causing the red cells to bind together or 'agglutinate.'

(D)isialosyl antibodies - in this disease, "anti-disialosyl antibodies" refers to the IgM antibodies.

Last updated on 05-01-20

Why is there such limited information on CANOMAD syndrome?

There have not been many documented cases of the condition as demonstrated by the presence of very few articles on CANOMAD syndrome in the medical literature.

Last updated on 05-01-20

What is CANOMAD syndrome?

CANOMAD syndrome is a rare chronic immune-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy. CANOMAD stands for Chronic Ataxic Neuropathy Ophthalmoplegia IgM paraprotein Cold Agglutinins Disialosyl antibodies. Signs and symptoms of CANOMAD may include loss of muscle, tendon, and joint sensation, abnormal gait (walk), ataxia, tingling sensation on the skin around the mouth or extremities, paralysis of eye muscles, difficulty swallowing and speaking, and rarely respiratory muscle weakness. This condition is caused by the presence of anti-diasialosyl antibodies in the body. Oral or intravenous corticosteroids, ß-interferons, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and cytotoxic drugs have all been used in treating CANOMAD with varying success.

Last updated on 05-01-20

How might CANOMAD syndrome be treated?

Oral or intravenous corticosteroids, ß-interferons, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), plasma exchange, and cytotoxic drugs and a combination of these therapies have all been used in treating CANOMAD syndrome with varying success. Their use, however, has not been evaluated systematically. In recent years, IVIG seems to be the preferred method of treatment.

Last updated on 05-01-20

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The RareGuru disease database is regularly updated using data generously provided by GARD, the United States Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center.

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