Paroxysomal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia

Are there non-genetic causes of paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD)?

Yes. Sporadic (non-genetic) causes of PNKD have been reported in the literature. Non-genetic causes include lesions of the basal ganglia (nerve cells deep in the brain) due to multiple sclerosis, tumors, and vascular lesions. In addition, lesions outside the basal ganglia (including those due to penetrating injury) have been reported as causing symptoms similar to those found in PNKD. In these situations, careful evaluation by a neurologist and neuroimaging (such as MRI) may be necessary for diagnosis.

Last updated on 05-01-20

Selected Full-Text Journal Articles

Free full text - Untergerber Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia

Unterberger I, Trinka E. Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Paroxysmal Dyskinesias Revisited. Ther Adv Neurol Disorders. 2008;1(2):67-74.

Last updated on 04-27-20

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