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Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is a disorder of the nervous system that causes periods of involuntary movement. Common symptoms include irregular, jerking or shaking movements, prolonged contraction of muscles, chorea, and/or writhing movements of the limb. Symptoms usually last between 1 and 4 hours. The movements may have no known trigger or be brought on by alcohol, caffeine, stress, fatigue, menses, or excitement. The familial form is caused by mutations in the PNKD gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Treatment might involve the use of antiseizure medications such as Clonazepam and avoidance of triggers.
Source: GARD Last updated on 05-01-20
Yes. Sporadic (non-genetic) causes of PNKD have been reported in the literature. Non-genetic causes include lesions of the basal ganglia (nerve cells deep in the brain) due to multiple sclerosis, tumors, and vascular lesions. In addition, lesions outside the basal ganglia (including those due to penetrating injury) have been reported as causing symptoms similar to those found in PNKD. In these situations, careful evaluation by a neurologist and neuroimaging (such as MRI) may be necessary for diagnosis.
Last updated on 05-01-20
Unterberger I, Trinka E. Review: Diagnosis and Treatment of Paroxysmal Dyskinesias Revisited. Ther Adv Neurol Disorders. 2008;1(2):67-74.
Last updated on 04-27-20
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