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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.
Orpha Number: 584
A rare, genetic lysosomal storage disease characterized by accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in connective tissue which results in progressive multisystem involvement with severity ranging from mild to severe. The most consistent features include musculoskeletal involvement (particularly dysostosis multiplex, joint restriction, thorax abnormalities, and short stature), limited vocabulary, intellectual disability, coarse facies with a short neck, pulmonary involvement (predominantly decreased pulmonary function), corneal clouding, and cardiac valve disease.
The prevalence at birth is reported to range between 1/345,000 -5,000,000. However, the frequency of the disease may be underestimated as the most frequent presentation is the antenatal form, which remains underdiagnosed.
Signs are extremely variable: there are prenatal forms with non-immune hydrops fetalis, and severe neonatal forms with dysmorphism, hernias, hepatosplenomegaly, club feet, dysostosis, small stature and severe hypotonia and neurological involvement that ultimately lead to profound intellectual deficit in patients who survive. At the other end of the spectrum, there are very mild cases that are discovered during adolescence or adulthood following presentation with thoracic kyphosis.
Mutations in the gene GUSB (7q11.21) causes beta-D-glucuronidase deficiency, which leads to accumulation of several glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), and chondroitin sulfate (CS)) in lysosomes.
Diagnosis is supported by x-ray evidence of dysostosis multiplex and detection of increased levels of urinary glycosaminoglycan (either CS alone or CS+HS+DS) excretion, although this sign may be absent in adult forms. Diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of beta-D-glucuronidase deficiency in cultured leucocytes or fibroblasts. Pseudodeficient alleles make mild forms more difficult to identify and prenatal diagnosis difficult.
Differential diagnosis includes other types of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and oligosaccharidosis. The determination of enzymatic activity in leucocytes allows heterozygous individuals to be detected for the severe forms. When the two mutations have been identified in the index patient, the detection of heterozygous relatives can be performed accurately.
Diagnosis is possible in forms with in utero presentation and may prevent recurrence of pregnancies leading to in utero death or late termination of the pregnancy. Prenatal diagnosis (by molecular analysis or measurement of enzyme activity in trophoblasts or amniocytes) can be offered to parents with an affected child. Parents should be made aware of the availability of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT).
Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Management and treatment
ERT with recombinant human beta-glucuronidase has been approved in Europe and the USA for MPS type 7, and has shown improvement in walking, lung function and hepatosplenomegaly in clinical trials. Still, multidisciplinary management allows adapted symptomatic treatment, which is essential for improving the quality of life of the patients. In late-onset forms, treatment is mainly orthopedic. Bone marrow transplantation has been successful in three of five patients.
Prognosis is typically poor for antenatal forms, often leading to death in utero. Neonatal and childhood forms typically have a very limited life expectancy, whereas milder forms have a prolonged survival. Whilst ERT is now available, long term outcome data are not yet available on the ERT treated patients.
Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.
Source: GARD Last updated on 05-01-20
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