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Kallmann syndrome 1 is an inherited disorder characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell. Other symptoms may include color blindness, cleft lip or palate, abnormal eye movements, hearing loss, failure of one of the kidneys to develop, mirror image hand movements, abnormalities of tooth development, and infertility. This disorder is a form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Affected males are usually born with a small penis and undescended testicles. Affected females usually do not begin menstruating at puberty and have little or no breast development. Kallmann syndrome 1 is the most common type of Kallmann syndrome (there are four types identified at this time). It is caused by mutations in the KAL1 gene and is inherited in an X-linked recessive fashion.
Source: GARD Last updated on 05-01-20
The features of Kallmann syndrome 1 vary, even among affected people in the same family. The condition is characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell. It is a form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is a condition affecting the production of hormones that direct sexual development. Males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism are often born with an unusually small penis and undescended testes. At puberty, most affected individuals do not develop secondary sex characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair and deepening of the voice in males. Affected females usually do not begin menstruating at puberty and have little or no breast development. In some people, puberty is incomplete or delayed.
In Kallmann syndrome 1, the sense of smell is either diminished or completely absent. This feature distinguishes Kallmann syndrome from most other forms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which do not affect the sense of smell. Many people with Kallmann syndrome are not aware that they are unable to detect odors until the impairment is discovered through testing.
Additional signs and symptoms can include a failure of one kidney to develop, a cleft lip or palate, abnormal eye movements, hearing loss, and abnormalities of tooth development. Some affected individuals have a condition called bimanual synkinesis, in which the movements of one hand are mirrored by the other hand.
Last updated on 05-01-20
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