HaNDL syndrome

How is HaNDL syndrome diagnosed?

HaNDL syndrome is considered a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning it is important to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms in the diagnostic process. Tests that may be used to diagnose this condition include but are not limited to:

Diagnostic guidelines were published in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, which state that HaNDL syndrome is classified as a headache associated with a noninfectious inflammatory disease. The diagnostic criteria includes:

  • Episodes of migraine-like headache lasting at least four hours, during or shortly before neurological symptoms occur.
  • The finding of an abnormally increased level of a type of white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the cerebrospinal fluid (lymphocytic pleocytosis).
  • Either worsening or improving neurological symptoms depending on the level of lymphocytic pleocytosis.
  • Exclusion of other similar conditions.

The diagnostic guidelines are freely available to the general public and can be viewed on the International Classification of Headache Disorders website.

Last updated on 05-01-20

Selected Full-Text Journal Articles

Free full text-HaNDL syndrome

Valença MM, de Oliveira DA, de L. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome, Burning Mouth Syndrome, Cold Stimulus Headache, and HaNDL: Narrative Review Headache. October 2015; 55(9):1233-1248.

Last updated on 04-27-20

Name: National Headache Foundation NHF 820 N Orleans, Suite 201
Chicago, IL, 60610-3132, United States
Phone: +1-312-274-2650 Toll Free: 1-888-643-5552 Email: info@headaches.org Url: https://headaches.org
Name: American Headache Society 19 Mantua Rd.
Mount Royal, NJ,
Phone: 856-423-0043 Fax : 856-423-0082 Email: ahshq@talley.com Url: http://www.americanheadachesociety.org/
Name: International Headache Society 52-53 Russell Square
London, WC1B 4HP, United Kingdom
Url: http://www.ihs-headache.org/

Connect with other users with HaNDL syndrome on the RareGuru app

Do you have information about a disease, disorder, or syndrome? Want to suggest a symptom?
Please send suggestions to RareGuru!

The RareGuru disease database is regularly updated using data generously provided by GARD, the United States Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center.

People Using the App

Join the RareGuru Community

To connect, share, empower and heal today.

People Using the App