Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive type

What causes autosomal recessive craniometaphyseal dysplasia?

Autosomal recessive craniometaphyseal dysplasia is caused by mutations in the GJA1 gene. The GJA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called connexin43, which is one of 21 connexin proteins in humans. Connexins lay a role in cell-to-cell communication by forming channels, or gap junctions, between cells. Gap junctions allow for the transport of nutrients, charged particles (ions), and other small molecules that carry necessary communication signals between cells. Connexin43 is found in many human tissues, including eyes, skin, bine, ears, heart, and brain.

Mutations in the GJA1 gene that cause autosomal recessive craniometaphyseal dysplasia appear to disrupt bone remodeling. The exact mechanism involved is yet to be determined.

Last updated on 05-01-20

How might craniometaphyseal dysplasia be treated?

Treatment consists primarily of surgery to reduce compression of cranial nerves and the brain stem/spinal cord at the level of the foramen magnum. Severely overgrown facial bones can be contoured; however, surgical procedures can be technically difficult and bone regrowth is common. Individuals with craniometaphyseal dysplasia should have regular neurologic evaluations, hearing assessments, and ophthalmologic examinations. The frequency of these evaluations and assessments should be determined by the individual's history and severity of skeletal changes.

Last updated on 05-01-20

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