Don’t fight Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome alone.Find your community on the free RareGuru App.
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system that affects breathing. It causes a person to hypoventilate (especially during sleep), resulting in a shortage of oxygen and a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood. It have two forms of presentation, a classic form that usually begin shortly after birth in newborns, and a milder later-onset presentaition in toddlers, children and adults. Affected infants hypoventilate upon falling asleep and exhibit a bluish appearance of the skin or lips (cyanosis). Other features may include difficulty regulating heart rate and blood pressure; decreased perception of pain; low body temperature; sporadic profuse sweating; Hirschsprung disease; constipation; learning difficulties; eye abnormalities; and a characteristic facial appearance (having a short, wide, somewhat flattened face). They can also have tumors of neural crest origin, such as neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma. The later-onset form is milder, and some cases may present as infants and children who die suddenly and unexpectedly (“SIDS” and “sudden unexplained death of childhood [SUDC]”).
CCHS is caused by a variation (mutation) in the PHOX2B gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. However, over 90% of cases are due to a new mutation in the affected person and are not inherited from a parent. Diagnosis is made with the clinical symptoms and the genetic test showing the variation in the PHOX2B gene. Treatment typically includes mechanical ventilation or use of a diaphragm pacemaker. People who have been diagnosed as newborns and adequately ventilated throughout childhood may reach the age of 20 to 30 years, and can live independently. In the later-onset form, people who were diagnosed when they were 20 years or older have now reached the age of 30 to 55 years.
Source: GARD Last updated on 05-01-20
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that having a change (mutation) in only one copy of the responsible gene in each cell is enough to cause features of the condition.
The genetics of CCHS can be complex. Most people with CCHS have a new ( de novo) mutation in the responsible gene (the PHOX2B gene). De novo mutations occur for the first time in the affected person and are not inherited from a parent. Some people with CCHS have a parent with the condition, and inherit the mutation from that parent.
In some cases, an asymptomatic parent of a person with symptoms has a PHOX2B mutation in some of their germ cells (egg or sperm cells, not body cells). This is called germline mosaicism. Some of these parents also have a PHOX2B mutation in some of their body cells. This is called somatic mosaicism. Germline mosaicism with or without somatic mosaicism is present in about 25% of asymptomatic parents of people with CCHS.
Parents with mosaicism should have a comprehensive assessment to determine if any features of CCHS are present. It is also recommended that parents of a person with a presumed de novo mutation have genetic testing for the presence of the mutation, including testing that detects mosaicism at low levels.
Last updated on 05-01-20
Do you have information about a disease, disorder, or syndrome? Want to suggest a symptom?
Please send suggestions to RareGuru!