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Cervical dystonia is a neurological condition characterized by excessive pulling of the muscles of the neck and shoulder resulting in abnormal movements of the head (dystonia). Most commonly, the head turns to one side or the other. Tilting sideways, or to the back or front may also occur. The turning or tilting movements may be accompanied by shaking movement (tremor) and/or soreness of the muscles of the neck and shoulders. Cervical dystonia can occur at any age, but most cases occur in middle age. It often begins slowly and usually reaches a plateau over a few months or years. The cause of cervical dystonia is often unknown. In some cases there is a family history. Several genes have been associated with cervical dystonia, including GNAL , THAP1 , CIZ1 , and ANO3. Other cases may be linked to an underlying disease (e.g. Parkinson disease), neck trauma, or certain medications. Treatment may include local injections of botulinum toxin, pain medications, benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications), anticholinergics, physical therapy, or surgery.
Source: GARD Last updated on 05-01-20
Cervical dystonia may be classified as "primary" or "secondary." Primary dystonia refers to dystonia with no clear identifiable cause and is referred to as idiopathic. In primary dystonia, there is no known structural abnormality in the central nervous system, and no underlying disease present. Primary cervical dystonia is associated with a hereditary component in approximately 12% of cases, and it may possibly be linked to previous neck injury.
Secondary dystonia occurs as a consequence or symptom of an underlying abnormality or disease (e.g. Parkinson disease) and has a clear cause which can be inherited or acquired. It may be linked to the use of certain medications (e.g. neuroleptics), excessive toxin ingestion (e.g. in carbon monoxide poisoning), or structural lesions due to trauma (primarily of the basal ganglia).
Last updated on 05-01-20
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